Archive for Big Data

Create a Pareto Chart in Power BI

“Baseball is 90% mental, and the other half is physical.” – Yogi Berra

You just have to love Yogi Berra quotes like this. We all pretty much know what he’s talking about, even if his math is not spot on. It’s a restatement of the Pareto Principle, the 80/20 rule! It applies to just about anything in life or business. If I had to write a definition of it for technical documentation, it would look something like this:

“A situation where eighty percent of events attributed to a group are caused by twenty percent of the members of the group.”

Re-stated as examples:

  • Eighty percent of your human resource issues are caused by twenty percent of your employees.
  • Eighty percent of your maintenance issues are caused by twenty percent of your equipment.
  • Eighty percent of your sales are attributed to twenty percent of your products.
  • Eighty percent of the wealth is controlled by twenty percent of the population.

 

(And I’m certainly not in that last twenty percent. If I was, I wouldn’t have to write articles like this one!)

Now that we’ve got an understanding of the principle, let’s look at how it can be visualized. Excel has a very simple wizard for creating a Pareto Chart that can be found on the Insert menu:

But we want one of these in Power BI. And Power BI doesn’t have one (yet, maybe later). We’ll need to ‘roll our own’.  Let’s discuss the various parts of the chart itself, so we know what we’re shooting for.

  • The categories, or series, at the bottom (One, Two, Three, etc.) represent the different members of the ‘group’ we are trying to analyze. They may be employees, machines on the manufacturing line, or products in our catalog.
  • The blue bar above each ‘member’ is its respective measurement (count of HR issues, money spent on maintenance, annual sales, etc.). The scale of this measurement is on the left side, in our case going from 0 to 120.
  • The final element is the curved line and the right-side scale measuring from zero to one hundred percent. This represents, at each category member, the percentage of the cumulative total of all members to the left of the member in question, inclusive. To put it another way, as we add each category’s number to the running total of those on its left, the line represents that running total divided by the entire total for all members of the category.

The arrow points to the spot on the line where it crosses 80%, in our case, after about the first four members, as can be seen by following the green dashed line from right to left, then down. The first four members would be the ‘twenty percent’ of the Pareto Principle, and their cumulative measure would be the eighty.

Note: Math wizards may point out that four members divided by a total member count of fifteen is closer to thirty percent than twenty, but remember that this is a rule of thumb, and we all know that some thumbs are bigger or smaller than others.

To plot some data in a Pareto Chart, we’ll need a couple of pieces of information from it:

  • Each member’s respective total
  • The grand total
  • The running total at each member, sorted from largest to smallest
  • The percentage that running total represents compared to the grand total

Now that we understand what we’re shooting for, let’s get started.

If your data includes a running sum of the measurement for each member, sorted by the respective member’s measurement, then you’re golden and can skip to the section titled Add the Grand Total and Running Percent. Your data may include a Ranking column so you may be able to skip the respective steps in each of the following two sections. For the rest of you, keep reading. We’ll look at two approaches to getting the intermediate bits of data: Power Query (M), and DAX.

Create the Rank and Running Sum in Power Query

Let’s start with some simple data in Excel, in fact the same data used to generate the Excel Pareto chart we used to explain the concepts:

We’ll load this data (it’s in an Excel table called “Table1”) and edit it in the Power BI Query Editor. First, we need to sort the data by the [Measure] column, sorted descending. Click the down-arrow next to the Measure column title and select Sort Descending.

Next, on the Add Column menu, select Index Column. Keep the defaults of Starting Index of 1 and Increment of 1.

I renamed my column to [Power Query Rank] to differentiate it from ranking step we’ll introduce in the model later via DAX.

Next, we’ll add the running total as a Custom Column with a formula as shown below:

Hint: If you can’t read the formula from the screen shot, it is:

= Table.Range ( #”Renamed Columns”, 0, [Power Query Rank] )

Attribution should go to Sam Vanga and SQL Server Central for this bit of M code: http://www.sqlservercentral.com/blogs/samvangassql/

The Power Query function Table.Range can be explained like this: Given a table of data, in our case the last of our query steps, a.k.a. #”Renamed Columns”, start at the 0 row (top), and go down the number of rows represented by the value in column [Power Query Rank]. The result is a table associated with each row in the query. The first row of the query has a table with one row of data in it. The second row has a table with two rows, and so forth. This table is represented by the word “Table” on each row of the column we just added.

From here, click on the ‘expand’ arrow in the column header and select the Aggregate radio button, check off the “Sum of Measure” column, and un-check “Use original column name as prefix”:

I renamed the resulting column [Power Query Running Total] (not shown).

Click Close and Apply on the Home menu.

Create the Rank and Running Sum in DAX

As with all things Microsoft, there is more than one way to accomplish a goal. In our case, the goal is to get the running total, and just like before, we’ll need the ranking first. For this exercise, we’ll be using DAX instead of Power Query, but should get the same results.

Create a column with the formula as follows:

DAX Rank = RANKX (All ( Table1 ), [Measure] )

Next, create the DAX Running Total measure as:

DAX Running Total =

CALCULATE (

SUM ( Table1[Measure] ),

FILTER (

ALLSELECTED ( Table1 ),

Table1[DAX Rank] <= MAX ( Table1[DAX Rank] )

)

)

This DAX formula does pretty much the same thing as the Power Query Range.Table function above, the only difference is that it includes the aggregate within, eliminating the need for an extra column.

Note: Know the difference between Columns and Measures in DAX. Mistaking the two will cause error, frustration, and hair loss.

Plotting all these columns and measures on a simple table visual shows that Power Query and DAX come up with the same answers for Rank and Running Total, a good sanity check. Also, the ranks are easy to verify as to accuracy, and with a little mental math, running totals are as well. I had to re-format some of the numbers to make them show without decimals.

Add the Grand Total and Running Percentage

There’s two more pieces we need: [Grand Total] which is self-explanatory, and [Running Percent], which is the ‘percentage of the [Running Total] compared to the [Grand Total]’. These can only be done in DAX. Add a measure as follows:

Grand Total = CALCULATE ( SUM ( Table1[Measure] ) , ALL ( Table1 ) )

This calculates the Grand Total and makes it available at every slice (row of each Member).

Now add the last item, a column with the expression:

Running Percent = [Power Query Running Total] / [Grand Total]

Or:

Running Percent = DIVIDE ( [Power Query Running Total] , [Grand Total] )

Note: The column [DAX Running Total] would work just as well as its Power Query equivalent since we know it has the same number.

Format this last one as a percent.

Create the Chart

Now the fun part. For this we’ll need either a “Line and Stacked Column Chart” or a “Line and Clustered Column Chart”. This is the easiest part of the whole exercise:

  • The Shared Axis is the [Member] column (“One”, “Two”, “Three”, etc.)
  • The Column values is the [Measure] column
  • The Line values in the [Running Percent] column

Like I said, simple if you have all of the data pieces in front of you.

Need help getting the right data pieces? Not sure what charts you can generate from the data pieces you have? There’s probably a way to get to where you want to be. Reach out to our team of data scientists at BlumShapiro Consulting to learn more about how data can help guide your organization into the future.

Our 5 Rules of Data Science

In manufacturing, the better the raw materials, the better the product. The same goes for data science, where a team cannot be effective unless the raw materials of data science are available to them. In this realm, data is the raw material which produces a prediction. However, raw materials alone are not sufficient. Business people who oversee machine learning teams must demand that best practices be applied, otherwise investments in machine learning will produce dubious business results. These best practices can be summarized into our five rules of data science.

For the purpose of illustration, let’s assume the data science problem our team is working on is related to the predictive maintenance of equipment on a manufacturing floor. Our team is working on helping the firm predict equipment failure, so that operations can replace the equipment before it impacts the manufacturing process.

Our 5 Rules of Data Science

1. Have a Sharp Question

A sharp question is specific and unambiguous. Computers do not appreciate nuance. They are not able to classify events into yes/no buckets if the question is: “Is Component X ready to fail?” Nor does the question need to concern itself with causes. Computers do not ask why – they calculate probability based upon correlation. “Will component X overheat?” is a question posed by a human who believes that heat contributes to equipment failure. A better question is: “Will component X fail in the next 30 minutes?”

2. Measure at the Right Level

Supervised learning requires real examples from which a computer can learn. The data you use to produce a successful machine learning model must demonstrate cases where failure has occurred. It must also demonstrate examples where equipment continues to operate smoothly. We must be able to unambiguously identify events that were failure events, otherwise, we will not be able to train the machine learning model to classify data correctly.

3. Make Sure Your Data is Accurate

Did a failure really occur? If not, the machine learning model will not produce accurate results. Computers are naïve – they believe what we tell them. Data science teams should be more skeptical, particularly when they believe they have made a breakthrough discovery after months of false starts. Data science leaders should avoid getting caught up in the irrational exuberance of a model that appears to provide new insight. Like any scientific endeavor, test your assumptions, beginning with the accuracy and reliability of the observations you started with to create the model.

4. Make Sure Your Data is Connected

The data used to train your model may be anonymized, because factors that correlate closely to machine failure are measurements, not identifiers. However, once the model is ready to be used, the new data must be connected to the real world – otherwise, you will not be able to take action. If you have no central authoritative record of “things”, you may need to develop a master data management solution before your Internet of Things with predictive maintenance machine learning can yield value. Also, your response to a prediction should be connected. Once a prediction of failure has been obtained, management should already know what needs to happen – use insights to take swift action.

5. Make Sure You Have Enough Data

The accuracy of predictions improve with more data. Make sure you have sufficient examples of both positive and negative outcomes, otherwise it will be difficult to be certain that you are truly gaining information from the exercise.

The benefits of predictive maintenance, and other applications of machine learning, are being embraced by businesses everywhere. For some, the process may appear a bit mysterious, but it needn’t be. The goal is to create a model which, when fed real-life data, improves the decision making of the humans involved in the process. To achieve this, data science teams need the right data and the right business problem to solve. Management should work to ensure that these five questions are answered to their satisfaction before investing in data science activities.

Not sure if you have the right raw materials? Talk to BlumShapiro Consulting about your machine learning ambitions. Our technology team is building next generation predictive analytics solutions that connect to the Internet of Things. We are helping our clients along each step of their digital transformation journey.

Berry_Brian-240About Brian: Brian Berry leads the Microsoft Business Intelligence and Data Analytics practice at BlumShapiro. He has over 15 years of experience with information technology (IT), software design and consulting. Brian specializes in identifying business intelligence (BI) and data management solutions for upper mid-market manufacturing, distribution and retail firms in New England. He focuses on technologies which drive value in analytics: data integration, self-service BI, cloud computing and predictive analytics

Technology Talks Podcast

Listen to our new podcast, Technology Talks, hosted by Hector Luciano, Consulting Manager at BlumShapiro Consulting. Each month, Hector will talk about the latest news and trends in technology with different leaders in the field.

Catch up with our first two episodes today:

In this first episode, Hector speaks with Noah Ullman, Director at BlumShapiro Consulting about the 4th Industrial Revolution and Digital Transformation. The two discuss what digital transformation means for your organization and how you can prepare to be a leader in this new digital age.


In episode two, Hector speaks with Brian Berry, Director at BlumShapiro Consulting about big data, the role it can play for your organization and how it connects to Digital Transformation and the 4th Industrial Revolution.

 

 

 

Using Real Time Data Analytics and Visualization Tools to Drive Your Business Forward

Business leaders need timely information about the operations and profitability of the businesses they manage to help make informed decisions. But when information delivery is delayed, decision makers lose precious time to adjust and respond to changing market conditions, customer preferences, supplier issues or all three. When thinking about any business analytics solution, a critical question to ask is: how frequently can we (or should we) update the underlying data? Often, the first answer from the business stakeholders is “as frequently as possible.” The concept of “real time analytics,” with data being provided up-to-the minute, is usually quite attractive. But there may be some confusion about what this really means.

While the term real time analytics does refer to data which is frequently changing, it is not the same as simply refreshing data frequently. Traditional analytics packages which take advantage of data marts, data warehouses and data cubes are often collectively referred to as a Decision Support System (DSS). A DSS helps business analysts, management and ownership understand historical trends in their business, perform root cause analysis and enable strategic decisions. Whereas a DSS system aggregates and analyzes sales, costs and other transactions, a real time analytics system ingests and processes events. One can imagine a $25 million business recording 10,000 transactions a day. One can imagine that same business recording events on their website: login, searches, shopping cart adds, shopping card deletes, product image zoom events. If the business is 100% online, how many events would that be? The answer may astonish you.

Why Real Time Analytics?

DSS solutions answer questions such as “What was our net income last month?”, “What was our net income compared to the same month last year?” or “Which customers were most profitable last month?” Real time analytics answers questions such as “Is the customer experience positive right now?” or “How can we optimize this transaction right now?” In the retail industry, listening to social media channels to hear what customers are saying about their experience in your stores, can drive service level adjustments or pricing promotions. When that analysis is real-time, store managers can adjust that day for optimized profitability. Some examples:

  1. Social media sentiment analysis – addressing customer satisfaction concerns
  2. Eliminating business disruption costs with equipment maintenance analytics
  3. Promotion and marketing optimization with web and mobile analytics
  4. Product recommendations throughout the shopping experience, online or “brick and mortar”
  5. Improved health care services with real time patient health metrics from wearable technology

In today’s world, customers expect world class service. Implicit in that expectation is the assumption that companies with whom they do business “know them”, anticipate their needs and respond to them. That’s easy to say, but harder to execute. Companies who must meet that expectation need technology leaders to be aware of three concepts critical to making real time analytics a real thing.

The first is Internet of Things or IoT. The velocity and volume of data generated by mobile devices, social media, factory floor sensors, etc. is the basis for real time analytics. “Internet of Things” refers to devices or sensors which are connected to the internet, providing data about usage or simply their physical environment (where the device is powered on). Like social media and mobile devices, IoT sensors can generate enormous volumes of data very, very quickly – this is the “big data” phenomenon.

The second is Cloud Computing. The massive scale of IoT and big data can only be achieved with cloud scale data storage and cloud scale data processing. Unless your company’s name is Google, Amazon or Microsoft, you probably cannot keep up. So, to achieve real-time analytics, you must embrace cloud computing.

The third is Intelligent Systems. IBM’s “Watson” computer achieved a significant milestone by out-performing humans on Jeopardy. Since then, companies have been integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into large scale systems. AI in this sense is simply a mathematical model which calculates the probability that data represents something a human would recognize: a supplier disruption, a dissatisfied customer about to cancel their order, an equipment breakdown. Using real time data, machine learning models can recognize events which are about to occur. From there, they can automate a response, or raise an alert to the humans involved in the process. Intelligent systems help humans make nimble adjustments to improve the bottom line.

What technologies will my company need to make this happen?

From a technology perspective, a clear understanding of cloud computing is essential. When evaluating a cloud platform, CIO’s should look for breadth of capability and support for multiple frameworks. As a Microsoft Partner, BlumShapiro Consulting works with Microsoft Azure and its Cortana Intelligence platform. This gives our clients cloud scale, low cost and a wide variety of real time and big data processing options.

CIO Article 1

This diagram describes the Azure resources which comprise Cortana Intelligence. The most relevant resources for real time analytics are:

  1. Event Hubs ingest high velocity streaming data being sent by Event Providers (i.e. Sensors and Devices)
  2. Data Lake Store provide low cost cloud storage which no practical limits
  3. Stream Analytics perform in-flight processing of streaming data
  4. Machine Learning, or AzureML, supports the design, evaluation and integration of predictive models into the real-time pipeline
  5. Cognitive Services are out-of-the-box Artificial Intelligence services, addressing a broad range of common machine intelligence scenarios
  6. Power BI supports streaming datasets made visible in a dashboard context

Four Steps to Get Started with Real Time Analytics

Start with the Eye Candy – If you do not have a dashboard tool which supports real-time data streaming, consider solutions such as Power BI. Even if you are not ready to implement an IoT solution, Power BI makes any social media or customer marketing campaigns much more feasible. Power BI can be used to connect databases, data marts, data warehouses and data cubes, and is valuable as a dashboard and visualization tool for existing DSS systems. Without visualization, it will be very difficult to provide human insights and actions for any kind of data, slow or fast.

Get to the Cloud – Cloud storage costs and cloud processing scale are the only mechanisms by which real time analytics is economically feasible (for most companies). Learn how investing in technologies like Cloud Computing can really help move your business forward.

Embrace Machine Intelligence – To make intelligent systems a reality, you will need to understand machine learning technologies, if only at a high level. Historically, this has meant developing a team of data scientists, many of whom have PhD’s in Mathematics or Statistics, and open source tools like R or Python. Today, machine learning is much more accessible then it has ever been. AzureML helps to fast track both the evaluation and operationalization of predictive models.

Find the Real-Time Opportunity – As the technology leader in the organization, CIO’s will need to work closely with other business leaders to understand where real-time information can increase revenue, decrease costs or both. This may require imagination. Start with the question – what would we like to know faster? If we knew our customer was going to do this sooner, how would we respond? If we knew our equipment was going to fail sooner, how would we respond? If we knew there was an opportunity to sell more, how would we respond?

Berry_Brian-240About Brian: Brian Berry leads the Microsoft Business Intelligence and Data Analytics practice at BlumShapiro. He has over 15 years of experience with information technology (IT), software design and consulting. Brian specializes in identifying business intelligence (BI) and data management solutions for upper mid-market manufacturing, distribution and retail firms in New England. He focuses on technologies which drive value in analytics: data integration, self-service BI, cloud computing and predictive analytics

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